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Descriptive Astronomy I...YouTube Videos: Astronomy History, Solar System

Sections on this page: [UNIT 1: Introduction, Celestial Sphere, Moon Phases, Eclipses, Telescopes, Solar System]  

[UNIT 2: Geocentric, Heliocentric, Kepler's Laws, Newton's Laws, Gravity, Orbits, Tides, Light, Atoms, Doppler]  

[UNIT 3: Telescopes, Planet Properties, Atmospheres, Greenhouse, Magnetic Field, Planet Surfaces, Mercury, Venus]  

[UNIT 4: Mars, Earth, Moon, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Jupiter's Moons, Other Moons, Rings of Planets]  

[UNIT 5: Asteroids, Meteorites, Comets, Dwarf Planets, Solar System Formation, ExtraSolar Planets, Sun]  

Unit 1 Introduction, Celestial Sphere, Moon Phases, Eclipses, Telescopes, Solar System
College Astronomy I Intro To Course Lecture (7 minutes) This video introduces the Descriptive Astronomy Course. The video also discusses the astronomynotes.com online textbook. This course is a first course in astronomy. PHY121 or Astronomy 101
Astronomical Unit, Light Year and Distance Scales Lecture (6 minutes) This video discusses the distance units of the astronomical unit (AU) and Lithg-Year (LY). The video shows the orbits of planets in the solar system and discusses distances with a model in which the diameter of the Sun is 3 inches (a little larger than a tennis ball). PHY121 SCIE1300 College Astronomy Descriptive Astronomy I
Scientific Method, Value of Astronomy to Science Lecture (10 minutes) This video briefly discusses 1) the value of astronomy to the advance of scientific knowledge; 2) the scientific method: observation, hypothesis, controlled experiment; 3) astrology. PHY121 SCIE1300 Astronomy 101
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Celestial Sphere Lecture (7 minutes) This video gives a brief explanation of the concept of the Celestial Sphere. The terms Celestial Equator, North Celestial Pole, Zenith, and Meridian are discussed. PHY121 SCIE1300 Astronomy 101
Asterisms Constellations Lecture (6 minutes) This video discusses the differences between asterisms and constellations. The video shows why we see different constellations in different months of the year. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Tilt of Earth's Rotation Axis and Seasons Lecture (14 minutes) This video describes the tilt of the Earth's rotation axis. The video shows that this tilt causes sunlight to hit the Earth more directly during our summer and also causes the Sun to be above the horizon for a longer period of time. These effects lead to warmer temperatures. The video explains that the distance from the Sun to the Earth does not cause the seasons. The terms equinox and solstice are briefly discussed. PHY122 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Circumpolar Stars and Precession Lecture (10 minutes) This video discusses the terms circumpolar and precession. Stars that are "close" to the north celestial pole are circumpolar. "Close" is determined by doing a simple calculation based on the latitude of the observer and the declination of the star. The video gives a brief explanation of precession, the changing location of the north celestial pole on the celestial sphere. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Moon Phases Lecture (12 minutes) Most of the content of this video is on the phases of the Moon. There is a short discussion at the beginning that explains why the stars rise 4 minutes earlier each successive day. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Lunar Eclipse Lecture (11 minutes) This video briefly discusses lunar eclipses. The umbra and penumbra regions of the Earth's shadow are identified. The red color of the disk of the moon during a total lunar eclipse is explained. The fact that we don't have eclipses every month is explained. This material relates to Chapter 3 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Solar Eclipse Lecture (6 minutes) This video gives a brief explanation of solar eclipses. Annular, Partial, and Total Solar Eclilpses are discussed. This material relates to Chapter 3 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Planet Orbits Terrestrial and Inferior Planets Lecture (12 minutes) This video shows that the planets are approximately in the same plane as they orbit the Sun. The video primarily discusses the motions of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Retrograde motion is explained. The maximum angle from the Sun to Venus is explained. This material relates to Chapter 3 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Unit 2 Geocentric, Heliocentric, Kepler's Laws, Newton's Laws, Gravity, Orbits, Tides, Light, Atoms, Doppler
Geocentric and Heliocentric Models of Solar System Lecture (10 minutes) This video gives a brief summary of the geocentric and heliocentric models of the solar system. Ptolemy's model is discussed. This material relates to Chapter 4 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Galileo Astronomy Observations Parallax Lecture (10 minutes) This video briefly discusses astronomy observations made around 1600, especially Galileo's observations of the Moon, Jupiter's Satellites, and the phases of Venus. Aberration of starlight and stellar parallax is discussed. The geocentric hypothesis is disproven. This material relates to chapter 4 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Kepler's Three Laws of Planetary Motion Lecture (15 minutes) This video discusses Kepler's Laws of planetary motion. Planet orbits are ellipses with the Sun at one focus. Planets move fast at perihelion and slow at aphelion. The larger the orbit the longer the time to complete one orbit. This material relates to chapter 4 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Newton's Laws of Motion and Gravity Lecture ( 17 minutes) This video gives a brief summary of Newton's Laws of Motion: 1) Inertia 2) F=ma 3) Paired Forces. The video discusses velocity, acceleration, and force. The video discusses Newton's Law of Gravity. This material relates to Chapter 5 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Gravity Acceleration Orbits Low Earth Orbit Geosynchronous Lecture (18 minutes) This video discusses why objects with different mass accelerate at the same rate as they fall to the earth (ignoring air resistance). The video discusses centripetal force and orbits. The video gives some history of the space race. This material relates to Chpater 5 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Transfer Orbit Earth to Mars and Tides Lecture (14 minutes) This video discusses the Hohmann Transfer orbit and tides. The transfer orbit requires the least amount of fuel for the rocket. Kepler's Third Law is used to estimate the time required for a spacecraft to travel from Earth to Mars. The video also discusses ocean tides and consequences of tides. This material relates to Chapter 5 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Light, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Types of Spectra, Information from Light Lecture (26 minutes) This video discusses the electromagnetic wave model for light and the electromagnetic spectrum. The speed of light is compared to the speed of sound. Continuous, Emission, and Absorption spectra are discussed. The reason for identical wavelengths for emission and absorption spectra is explained. Astronomers can determine the temperature and composition of objects by studying the light from the object. This material relates to Chapter 7 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Bohr Model of Atom, Electron Energy, Light, Doppler Effect Lecture (24 minutes) This video discusses the characteristics of atoms and the Bohr Model of the atom. The reason certain wavelengths of light are emitted and absorbed by atoms is described. The use of the Doppler effect to determine the speed of an object is discussed. This material relates to Chapter 7 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Unit3 Telescopes, Planet Properties, Atmospheres, Greenhouse, Magnetic Field, Planet Surfaces, Mercury, Venus
Telescopes History Refractor Reflector Hubble Lecture (19 minutes) This video discusses some history of the use of telescopes. The video explains the differences between refracting telescopes and reflecting telescopes. A brief discussion of the Hubble telescope is given. This material relates to chapter 8 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Telescopes Light Gathering Power, Resolution, Magnification Lecture (8 minutes) This video discusses some numerical comparisons for telescopes. The light gathering power is proportional to the square of the diameter of the objective. The resolving power increases as the diameter of the objective increases. The magnification is controlled by the ratio of the focal lengths of the objective and eyepiece. This material relates to Chapter 8 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Blue Sky Red Sunsets, Space Telescopes, Infrared, XRay images Lecture (7 minutes) This video explains why the sky is blue and why sunsets are red. The video discusses the benefits of having telescopes in space to make observations in the infrared and x-ray portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This material relates to Chapter 8 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Introduction to the Planets of our Solar System Lecture (25 minutes) This video gives a brief introduction to the planets of our solar system. The two categories of planets (terrestrial and jovian) are discussed. The spacing of the orbits of planets is illustrated. Photos of the planets are shown. The video explains how the masses, distance to the planets, and diameters of the planets are determined. The video shows some properties of the planets ... density, number of moons, atmospheric pressure, magnetic field, etc. This video relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Facts about Gases and Introduction to Planet Atmospheres Lecture (18 minutes) This video gives some background information on gases and why certain planets retain certain types of molecules. Retention of a type of molecule depends on the mass of hte molecule, the temperature of the atmosphere, and the gravity of the planet. The video discusses benefits of an atmosphere. The video discusses hydrostatic equilibrium .... why our atmosphere has a thickness. The Ideal Gas Law is briefly discussed. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Greenhouse Effect, Energy Balance for the Earth Lecture (16 minutes) This video discusses the greenhouse effect due to gases in the Earth's atmosphere. The important molecules are mentioned. Graphs of Temperature and Carbon Dioxide concentration are shown. Sources of carbon dioxide are discussed. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Survey of Planet Atmospheres in Solar System Lecture (6 minutes) This video gives a quick tour of the properties of the atmospheres of planets in our solar system. The atmosphere is discussed as the photo of each planet is shown. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Magnetic Field of Earth, Dynamo Theory, Aurora Lecture (11 minutes) This video gives a brief introduction to magnetism and magnetic field for the Earth and Jovian planets. The dynamo theory hypothesizes that electrical current int he core of a planet creates magnetic field. The production of aurora is described. This video relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Survey of Impact Craters and Volcanos on Terrestrial Planets Lecture (11 minutes) This video shows images of impact craters and volcanoes for the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. The video mentions how to distinguish impact craters from volcanic craters. There are brief comments as to why there are not many craters on the surface of the Earth. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astornomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Planet Mercury, Survey of Information Lecture ( 17 minutes) This video discusses the planet Mercury. The rotation and orbit of Mercury is shown. The best time to view Mercury in the sky is explained. Photos of Mercury from the Messenger Spacecraft are used to show surface features. The core of Mercury is discussed. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Planet Venus Lecture ( 17 minutes) This video gives a summary of the planet Venus. The best time to see Venus in the sky for 2015 is illustrated. The physical properties of the planet and its atmosphere are discussed. The runaway greenhouse is discussed. Radar images of craters and volcanoes are discussed. Images from the Venera landers are shown. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Unit 4 Mars, Earth, Moon, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Jupiter's Moons, Other Moons, Rings of Planets
Mars, General Characteristics, History of Observations, Water Lecture (16 minutes) This video introduces the planet Mars. The misinterpretation of "canals" is explained. The viewing opportunities for Mars are described. Evidence for ancient water is discussed. Evidence for present day ice is shown. Volcanoes are discussed. Landers on Mars are briefly described. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Mars: Orbit, Viewing, 1800s sketch, Missions to Mars, Large Features Lecture (11 minutes) This video introduces Mars. The orbits of Mars and Earth are shown and the viewing of Mars in the evening or morning is discussed. The past success rate of missions to Mars is discussed. Valles Marineris and the large volcanoes of Mars are discussed. The locations of the landers on Mars are shown. This video relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Mars: Ancient Water, Present Day Ice Lecture (8 minutes) This video shows evidence that Mars had liquid water at some point in its past. Deltas, Islands, and Mineral Deposits are shown. The video also shows present day evidence for water ice under the soil of Mars. The debated formation of gullies on the sides of crater walls is discussed. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Mars Global Dust, Sand Dunes, Whirlwinds, Avalanche Lecture (5 minutes) This video shows changes on mars. A global dust storm, movement of sand dunes, whirlwind, and avalanche are shown. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Rovers on the Planet Mars Lecture (8 minutes) This video discusses the rover missions to Mars: Pathfinder/Sojourner; Spirit and Opportunity, Curiosity. The sizes of the rovers are shown. The landing methods are discussed. Views of the travels of the rovers are shown. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Weather on the Planet Mars, Mars Colony Planning Lecture (9 minutes) This video discusses atmospheric conditions on Mars...weather reports from landers and rovers. The video discusses why the atmospheric pressure has a seasonal variation. The video also asks the viewer to do a little planning for those who will live on Mars in the future. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astornomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Moon, Early Observations, Speculations, Formation, Future Use by Humans Lecture (14 minutes) This video discusses some of the early observations of the Moon. The video reviews the theories on how the Moon came to be in "orbit" around the Earth. The video discusses water ice on the Moon and possible future use of the Moon by Humans. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Apollo Lunar Landing Program Lecture (11 minutes) This video gives a brief tour of the Apollo Moon Program. The Apollo 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 flights are mentioned. The flight path is shown. The scientific aspects to the exploration of the moon are mentioned. The landing sites are shown on a map. A present day photo by LRO of a landing site is shown. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Earth Age, Interior, Magnetic Field Lecture (11 minutes) This video discusses the Earth's age as determined by radioactive dating methods. The video briefly describes the Earth's Interior and magnetic field. The Van Allen radiation belts are mentioned. This material relates to chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Earth's Atmosphere Lecture (9 minutes) This video has a brief discussion of the atmosphere of the Earth. Primary and Secondary atmospheres are discussed. Human impact on carbon dioxide levels and the ozone layer are discussed. Oxygen as a biomarker is briefly discussed. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Jupiter, Planet Lecture (15 minutes) This video gives some of the major characteristics of Jupiter. This material relates to Chapter 9 of OpenStax College Physics. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Saturn Lecture (12 minutes) This video discusses some of the general characteristics of Saturn. The rings and moons of Saturn are not discussed in this video. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Uranus and Neptune Lecture (13 minutes) This video gives descriptions of Uranus and Neptune. The history of the discoveries for the two planets is mentioned. The atmosphere features of the planets are mentioned. The discovery of the rings of Uranus is discussed. The magnetic field of Uranus is discussed. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Jupiter's Moons Lecture (18 minutes) This video describes the moons of Jupiter. Most of the video discusses Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. The reason Io has volcanoes and Europa has water is discussed. The satellite groups of regular satellites, irregular satellites, and captured asteroids are discussed. This material relates to Chp 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Moons Mars Saturn Uranus Neptune Lecture (14 minutes) This video discusses moons of Mars (Phobos, Deimos), Saturn (Titan, Enceladus), Uranus, Neptune (Triton). This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Rings of Jovian Planets Lecture (12 minutes) This video discusses the rings of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Jupiter. The nature of the rings and why they are very thin compared to the diameter is discussed. This material relates to Chapter 9 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Unit 5 Asteroids, Meteorites, Comets, Dwarf Planets, Solar System Formation, ExtraSolar Planets, Sun
Asteroids Meteorites Lecture (25 minutes) This video discusses asteroids and meteorites. The asteroid belt, characteristics of asteroids, and history of discovery of asteroids are discussed. The terms meteoroid, meteor, and meteorite are defined.The Dawn mission to the asteroid belt is described. This material relates to Chapter 10 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Meteorite Ages, Asteroid Impacts Lecture (14 minutes) This video discusses radiometric dating of meteorites and effects on Earth due to impacts. The video reviews the concept of half life. The video discusses the search for asteroids that have orbits that can bring them near the Earth. This material relates to Chapter 10 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Comets in History, Structure of Comets Lecture (9 minutes) This video briefly discusses appearances of comets in history. Comets were often taken as "bad omens" and generated fear for people. The video briefly discusses the nucleus, coma, ion tail, and dust tail for comets. This material relates to Chapter 10 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Comets Nucleus photos Rosetta Kuiper Oort Lecture (14 minutes) This video discusses the composition of comets and shows photos of comet bodies. The video describes the long period and short period comets and identifies the sources for these comets. The Rosetta mission to Comet 67P is described. This material relates to Chapter 10 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Dwarf Planets, Pluto, Eris, Ceres Lecture (8 minutes) This video discusses the definitions of planet and dwarf planet. The motivation for assigning Pluto to the Dwarf Planet category is discussed. The New Horizons mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt is discussed. The dwarf planets Eris and Ceres are mentioned. This material relates to Chapter 10 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Formation of the Solar System Lecture (8 minutes) This video discusses the scientific theory of how the Sun and planets formed. The observational data is presented. The collision, fission, and condensation models are briefly discussed. This material relates to Chapter 10 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121, SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Extrasolar Planets Lecture (16 minutes) This video describes how extrasolar planets are detected and gives some of their properties. The Doppler Shift and transit methods are discussed. Some statistics about extrasolar planets are given. There is a brief discussion of Bode's Law for the spacing of planets in our solar system. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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Sun: Size, Mass, Structure Lecture (8 minutes) This video describes the size, mass, and structure of the Sun. The Sun is compared to the planets and the size of the orbit of the Moon. Another video will discuss the generation of energy in the Sun. This video relates to Chapter 12 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Sun: Age, 2 Peter 3:8, Energy Production Theories, Hydrostatic Equilibrium, Thermostat Lecture (17 minutes) This video discusses the theories of energy production of the Sun from the 1800's to the 1900's. The mechanism of fusion and E=mc2 are discussed. The balance between weight of outer layers and force from core pressure is discussed. The reason the Sun does not increase or decrease its energy output at this time is discussed. This material relates to Chapter 12 of astronomynotes.com. PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
Sun Outer Layers, Chromosphere, Corona, Sunspots Maunder Minimum Lecture (22 minutes) This video discusses the outer layers of the Sun and interactions of hte Sun with the Earth. The chromosphere and corona are discussed. The nature of sunspots is discussed. The Maunder Minimum (low sunspot count) and average temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere is discussed. This material relates to Chapter 12 of astronomynotes.com PHY121 SCIE1300 Introductory Astronomy 101
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